Flanked by her interpreter, a CST-7 soldier hands out sweets to Afghan children in 2014.
Flanked by her interpreter (right), a CST-7 soldier (left) hands out sweets to Afghan children in 2014. She was one of the last CST females to re-deploy in late 2014.

ENDNOTES

The U.S. Army Cultural Support Team Program

1

USAJFKSWCS, “Concept Plan for the Cultural Support Program: An Enduring Army Special Operations Capability,” 27 July 2010, 10, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files, Fort Bragg, NC, hereafter “CST Concept Plan.”

2

USAJFKSWCS, “Cultural Support Briefing,” 4 October 2011, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files.

3

CFSOCC-A, “CFSOCC-A CST Brief,” 11-15 July 2011, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files, hereafter CFSOCC-A CST Brief.

4

USASOC G-3, “Female Manned Cultural Support Teams,” 27 August 2010, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files, hereafter “Female Manned CSTs.”

5

Excerpt of text in USAJFKSWCS, “Cultural Support Team Command Update,” 26 August 2010, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files; see also CFSOCC-A CST Brief.

6

Explanation provided by former USSOCOM Commander ADM Eric T. Olson at a Senate Panel on the Emerging Role of Women in Combat, 28 April 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PaSBRJyq5IM (accessed 31 July 2015), hereafter Senate Panel on Women in Combat.

7

“Female Manned CSTs.” This number was based on input from Combined Forces Special Operations Component Command-Afghanistan (CFSOCC-A), the 75th Ranger Regiment, and the Joint Forces Special Operations Component Command-Iraq (JFSOCC-I).

8

USAJFKSWCS, “Cultural Support Teams, IPR #1,” 26 July 2010, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files; USAJFKSWCS, “Cultural Support Teams, IPR #2,” 20 August 2010, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files; USAJFKSWCS, “Cultural Support Team Training Course IPR,” 25 August 2010, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files. The CST program was refined during these IPRs, which explained that each CST would have 3 members ranked E-4 to 0-4 and would support Special Forces Operational Detachments-Alpha or U.S. Army Ranger units; that the 1st Special Warfare Training Group (SWTG) and various USAJFKSWCS directorates would oversee CST training; that the CST program would be open to all females across the Army; that the 3-5 day A&S would be followed by the 21 day CSTC, consisting of Orientation (3 days), General Culture (10 days), Afghan Culture (5 days), Engaging (2 days), and a Situational Training Exercise (1 day); that CST selectees will have also satisfied requirements of Civil Affairs (CA) A&S; and that U.S. Army Special Forces Command and 75th Ranger Regiment will directly assist CSTs with Pre-Mission Training (PMT).

9

“CST Concept Plan,” 10.

10

“CST Concept Plan,” 10.

11

USAJFKSWCS, “TDD [Training and Doctrine Division] SITREP, 1-5 November 2010,” 5 November 2010, 2, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files; USAJFKSWCS, Information Paper, “SUBJECT: Cultural Support Team Assessment and Selection Pilot Course (CSTAS) 01-11,” 9 November 2010, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files, hereafter CST Pilot Info Paper.

12

CST Pilot Info Paper.

13

95th Civil Affairs Brigade S-3, “95th CA BDE (A), S3/Training Meeting,” 12 October 2010, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files.

14

Commander, 3rd Battalion, 1st SWTG, CST-1 Graduation Invitation, no date, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files.

15

Cultural Support Teams: Training for a Critical Role in Village Stability Operations, CFSOCC-A, digital video, 2011, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files.

16

Deployment dates drawn from Enlisted Record Briefs from CST-1 personnel. See also USAJFKSWCS, “USAJFKSWCS – Cultural Support Team In-Brief,” 7 May 2013, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files, hereafter “CST In-Brief.”

17

Cultural Support Teams: Training for a Critical Role in Village Stability Operations.

18

Quotation from SGT Warren Wright, 19th Public Affairs Detachment, “Two Members of Cultural Support Team Receive Combat Action Badges,” 13 September 2011, https://www.dvidshub.net/news/76916/two-members-cultural-support... (accessed 30 July 2015).

19

HQDA, “ALARACT 080/2011, SUBJECT: ESTABLISHMENT OF PERSONNEL DEVELOPMENT SKILL IDENTIFIER (PDSI) CODE D5K (CULTURAL SUPPORT TEAM),” 2 March 2011, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files.

20

USASOC, “Cultural Support Team (CST) Program Reassignment to SWCS,” 5 April 2011, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files, hereafter “Reassignment to SWCS.”

21

“Reassignment to SWCS.”

22

“Reassignment to SWCS.”

23

TDD, “SITREP, 31 May-3 June 2011,” 3 June 2011, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files.

24

Directorate of Special Operations Proponency (DSOP), “DSOP SITREP, 25-31 July 2011,” 31 July 2011, 3, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files; “CST In-Brief.”

25

“CST Concept Plan,” 10.

26

Cultural Support Teams: Training for a Critical Role in Village Stability Operations.

27

Cultural Support Teams: Training for a Critical Role in Village Stability Operations.

28

Re-deployment dates drawn from Enlisted Record Briefs from CST-1 personnel.

29

USASOC History Office, The Last Full Measure of Devotion: ARSOF Fallen from the War on Terrorism, 2001-2014 (Fort Bragg, NC: USASOC, 2015), 170.

30

Senate Panel on Women in Combat, 28 April 2015.

31

USAJFKSWCS, “SWC Off-site (14 March 2012): CST Training,” 14 March 2012, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files, hereafter “SWC Off-site.”

32

“SWC Off-site.”

33

“CST In-Brief.”

34

Posture Statement of ADM William H. McRaven, Commander, USSOCOM, Before the 112th Congress, Senate Armed Services Committee, 6 March 2012.

35

“SWC Off-site”; 1st SWTG, USAJFKSWCS, Memorandum, “SUBJECT: 1st SWTG(A) Weekly SITREP 25 – 31 July 12,” 1 August 2012, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files, hereafter “1st SWTG(A) Weekly SITREP 25 – 31 July 12.”

36

“SWC Off-site”; “1st SWTG(A) Weekly SITREP 25 – 31 July 12”; 3rd SFG, “Cultural Support Team #4 IPR,” 24 September 2012, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files; C Company, 2nd Battalion, 3rd SFG, “Cultural Support Team Training Brief,” no date, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files; 3rd Battalion, 1st SWTG, “Historical Summary-Fiscal Year 2012,” no date, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files.

37

“CST In-Brief.”

38

3rd SFG, “CST #3 R3 IPR,” 29 November 2012, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files; “CST In-Brief.”

39

3rd Battalion, 1st SWTG, “2013 Command Brief,” 25 October 2012, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files.

40

D Company, 3rd Battalion, 1st SWTG, “D/3/1 SWTG (A) TRAINING SCHEDULE, CULTURAL SUPPORT TEAM,” 4 March 2013, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files, hereafter “D/3/1 SWTG (A) TRAINING SCHEDULE,” 4 March 2013.

41

“D/3/1 SWTG (A) TRAINING SCHEDULE,” 4 March 2013; 1st SWTG, Memorandum, “SUBJECT: 1st SWTG(A) Weekly SITREP 25 April – 01 May 2013,” 2 May 2013, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files.

42

“CST In-Brief.”

43

Quotation from Terri Moon Cronk, “Cultural Support Team Women Serve with Distinction,” 30 April 2015, http://www.army.mil/article/147493/cultural_support_team_serve... (accessed 30 July 2015).

44

D Company, 3rd Battalion, 1st SWTG, “D/3/1 SWTG (A) TRAINING SCHEDULE, CULTURAL SUPPORT TEAM 03-13,” 13 May 2013, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files, hereafter “D/3/1 SWTG (A) TRAINING SCHEDULE,” 13 May 2013.

45

“D/3/1 SWTG (A) TRAINING SCHEDULE,” 13 May 2013; 3rd Battalion, 1st SWTG, “SUBJECT: 3rd BN SITREP – 17 AUG 2013 – 23 AUG 2013,” 23 August 2013, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files; Group Support Battalion, 3rd SFG, “3D GSB CST#6 OPORD # 13-03,” 25 September 2013.

46

USASOC History Office, The Last Full Measure of Devotion, 188; Award of Bronze Star with “V” Device to Captain Jennifer M. Moreno, 16 October 2013, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files.

*Dates are approximate.

47

D Company, 3rd Battalion, 1st SWTG, “D/3/1 SWTG (A) TRAINING SCHEDULE, CULTURAL SUPPORT TEAM 01-14,” 2 December 2013, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files, hereafter “D/3/1 SWTG (A) TRAINING SCHEDULE,” 2 December 2013.

48

“D/3/1 SWTG (A) TRAINING SCHEDULE,” 2 December 2013; A Company, 3rd Battalion, 3rd SFG, “Cultural Support Team 7 (CST7) Training Brief,” no date, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files.

49

3rd SFG, “IPR #5 CST 7 PMT, 31 March 2014 - 16 May 2014,” no date, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files; GSB, 3rd SFG, “3D GSB CST#7 OPORD # 14-001,” 2 April 2014, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files.

50

USASOC, “SUBJECT: USASOC CULTURAL SUPPORT TEAM (CST) PROGRAM SUSPENDED,” 9 June 2014, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files.